Gynecology ambulatory office

Screening for ovarian cancer

How does early detection help?

The table below clearly explains the need for early detection for ovarian cancer in regard to patient survival. In the Slovak Republic, however, the primary detection of ovarian cancer is mainly in the FIGO III and IV stages; these, unfortunately, have a very poor patient survival prognosis – 5 years. Thanks to preventive diagnosis with the expert 2D and 3D/4D ultrasound examination and the application of IOTA rules to the sonomorphological description of ovarian tumour changes, the early detection of ovarian cancer has increased significantly.

neskora diagnoza rakoviny vajecnikov
umrtnost vs prezitie rakoviny

Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary

Stage (FIGO) Relative measure of 5-year patient survival
I 90%
IA 94%
IB 92%
IC 85%
II 70%
IIA 78%
II 73%
III 39%
IIIA 59%
IIIB 52%
IIIC 39%
IV 17%
epiteliarny karcinom vajecnika

What is the Expert 2D and 3D/4D Ultrasound Examination?

In modern oncogynecology, the basic imaging method is expert ultrasound with, which has a greater precision than other imaging methods such as CT or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Expert 2D and 3D/4D ultrasound for ovarian carcinoma detection has a 90% sensitivity and specificity for asymptomatic women. For the foundation of optimal and successful treatment of ovarian cancer, it is important to detect the first two stages of the disease (FIGO I and II) and determine the biological nature of the tumour, which defines the prognosis for the disease.

rakovina vajecnika

The advantages of expert ultrasound examination are:

  • in the dynamic of the examination and imaging in three dimensions of the given organ
  • in the possibility of assessing the mobility of an organ, painfulness, movement of fluid content and elastography
  • in the combination of sonomorphological and flows examination with assessment of the vascular architecture of the examined ovary
  • in the most comprehensive imaging of ovaries and oviducts (fallopian tubes)
  • in the complete absence of ionizing radiation

What is the intense management of preventive check-ups?

This entirely new type of intensive management of preventive check-ups of patients involves testing for the BRCA1 and 2 gene mutations. Patients with this mutation have a higher risk and likelihood of ovarian or breast cancer.

Why a genetic examination for heritable ovarian and breast cancer?

On average, 1.2 new cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed in Slovakia each day and most often in women of postmenopausal age (after the age of 50). Nearly every tenth case of ovarian cancer is the so-called hereditary form, which results from the presence of mutation in the gene/genes, the most important of which are BRCA1 (60% of cases) and BRCA2 (40% of cases). Women who are carriers of the “heritable” mutations in the above-mentioned genes have more than a 40% probability for the development of ovarian carcinoma by the age of 50, with an age risk increasing to 85%.

riziko rakoviny vaječníkov

What is the significance of genetic DNA analysis of the BRCA genes?

To identify women with a high risk of developing ovarian cancer and to ensure adequate dispensation, i.e. to individualize the preventive and prophylactic treatment regimen of these women. The aim of these intensive preventive check-ups is to prevent cancer or to detect it in the lowest possible stage, when there is a high probability for a successful treatment.

význam genetického na´dorového testovania